What is a DDoS attack? You may have heard this term in the news or on social media, but what does it actually mean? And as a consumer or residential Internet user, should you be concerned? Fortunately the quick answer is no. DDoS attacks are targeted towards larger websites and organisations such as Microsoft or Sony. Further they are often designed to stop others from accessing the site during the attack such as targeting Ticketmaster before a Justin Bieber concert, or to disrupt a political or anti-something organisation.
Defining Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are a type of cyber threat where multiple systems target a single system, overwhelming its resources and rendering it temporarily or permanently inoperative. These attacks have become increasingly prevalent due to the ease with which they can be executed and the potentially devastating consequences for the target. In this section, we will examine the key characteristics and components of DDoS attacks.
How DDoS Attacks Work
A DDoS attack functions by utilising a variety of methods to generate excessive amounts of traffic, which is then directed at a target system, such as a website or server. This traffic is often created through the use of botnets, networks of compromised computers or devices that are controlled by a central attacker. The sheer volume of traffic overwhelms the target’s ability to process requests, causing outages and service disruptions.
Some common tactics used in DDoS attacks include:
- UDP Flood: An attacker sends a large number of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to random ports on the target server, causing the server to become overwhelmed.
- Syn Flood: The attacker sends numerous SYN (synchronise) packets to the target, forcing the server to consume resources while waiting for responses that never come.
- HTTP Flood: An attacker inundates a target with HTTP requests, overloading its processing capacity and preventing legitimate requests from being served.
Types of DDoS Attacks
DDoS attacks can be classified into three categories based on the layer of the target system they affect:
1. Volume-based attacks: These attacks aim to overload the target’s bandwidth by sending an immense amount of traffic, causing network congestion and communication breakdowns.
2. Protocol-based attacks: These attacks exploit vulnerabilities within network protocols, such as TCP, UDP, and ICMP, to overload the target’s processing capabilities and consume critical resources.
3. Application layer attacks: These attacks target specific applications or services on the target system, overloading them with a high volume of requests and impairing their functionality.
Motivations Behind DDoS Attacks
The motivations for launching DDoS attacks can vary widely, ranging from financial gain and revenge to activism and cyber warfare. Some common motivations include:
1. Extortion: Attackers demand payment in exchange for stopping the attack, causing financial loss to the target.
2. Competitive advantage: Businesses may use DDoS attacks to disrupt their competition’s online presence and steer customers toward their own services, or to get a financial gain or incentive on their activities, such as picking up all the tickets to a soldout concert before normal people can.
3. Political activism: Groups may leverage DDoS attacks as a form of protest against organisations, governments, or individuals whose policies or actions they disagree with. Commonly used against religious groups.
4. Cyber warfare: Nation-states may utilise DDoS attacks to disrupt the operations of adversaries or to gain strategic advantage during conflicts.
Understanding the mechanics of DDoS attacks and the motivations behind them allows organisations and individuals to better protect themselves and mitigate the risks associated with this increasingly prevalent form of cyber threat.
Common Techniques Used in DDoS Attacks
Amplification and Reflection Attacks
Amplification and reflection attacks are a common technique used in DDoS attacks. Amplification involves the attacker sending a small amount of data to a third-party server, which then sends a larger amount of data to the targeted system. Reflection attacks involve the attacker sending a request to a third-party server with a spoofed IP address, causing the server to send its large response to the unsuspecting target. Both methods aim to overwhelm the victim’s network with an excessive volume of traffic, ultimately disrupting services.
Botnets and Compromised Devices
Botnets are large networks of compromised devices (often referred to as “zombie” computers) that are controlled by the attacker remotely. These devices may include computers, smartphones, IoT devices, or even routers. An attacker can use a botnet to launch a coordinated attack on a target, overwhelming it with simultaneous requests from multiple sources. The more devices in a botnet, the more powerful the DDoS attack can be, making it difficult for the target to discern legitimate traffic from malicious traffic.
Application Layer Attacks
Application layer attacks focus on specific applications or services running on a target’s infrastructure. The attacker aims to exhaust the resources or exploit vulnerabilities in the targeted application, resulting in service disruption or complete unavailability. These attacks are often more sophisticated and difficult to detect, since they mimic normal user behaviour and may only require a small amount of traffic to be successful. Common examples of application layer attacks include HTTP floods, slowloris, and SQL injection.
Reasons Behind Initiating DDoS Attacks
One of the primary reasons behind DDoS attacks is financial gain. Cybercriminals often perpetrate these attacks to extort money from their targets, typically by demanding payment in exchange for ceasing the attack. This approach, commonly known as “DDoS-for-hire” or “DDoS extortion,” has become a lucrative business for attackers, who typically use cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin to maintain anonymity. In some cases, attackers may also use DDoS attacks to manipulate stock prices, exploit online betting platforms, or divert attention from other cybercrimes they are committing, such as data breaches or theft.
Political and Ideological Motives
Another significant motivation behind DDoS attacks is related to politics and ideology. Activists, hacktivists, or nation-state actors may engage in these types of cyberattacks to express political dissent, intimidate rival nations, or silence opposing views. DDoS attacks allow perpetrators to have an immediate and disruptive impact on their targets, making it an attractive tool for those wishing to make a statement or achieve a specific goal. Prominent political events, elections, and international disputes often serve as triggers for DDoS attacks carried out for political or ideological reasons.
Businesses and organisations may also find themselves targeted by DDoS attacks aimed at gaining competitive advantage. Attackers may disrupt a company’s website, e-commerce platform, or online services to benefit a competitor or simply harm the target’s reputation and customer trust. These attacks may also be conducted as acts of corporate espionage, with the intent to acquire sensitive information or delay the launch of new products or services. This form of DDoS attack can have severe long-term consequences on targeted businesses, as it not only impacts revenue but may also damage consumer confidence and overall brand perception.
The Impact of DDoS Attacks on Businesses and Individuals
Effects on Business Operations
DDoS attacks can have severe consequences on the normal functioning of businesses. When a company’s website or online services are under attack, they become inaccessible to both existing and potential customers. This disruption not only leads to immediate financial losses due to reduced sales and transactions, but also damages the company’s reputation. In many instances, as the attack persists, users may lose trust in the company and seek alternative options for their needs, which could result in long-term loss of clients and revenue.
Data Security and Privacy Concerns
During a DDoS attack, attackers may utilise the chaos to infiltrate and exploit vulnerable systems, potentially gaining access to sensitive data. These breaches can lead to theft, modification, or destruction of critical information, causing serious damage to a business’ reputation and finances. Moreover, a considerable amount of resources is needed to investigate and rectify the breach, further straining a company’s budget. In the case of individuals targeted by DDoS attacks, cybercriminals may access personal information such as social security numbers and bank details, leading to identity theft and financial losses.
Recovery and Mitigation Costs
Apart from the immediate losses and disruptions caused by DDoS attacks, businesses and individuals need to allocate significant resources to recover and strengthen their systems against future assaults. This involves both financial expenses and time investment, as it may require addressing various aspects such as upgrading security infrastructure, deploying DDoS protection solutions, and training employees on cybersecurity best practices. In some cases, businesses might also face legal repercussions and penalties if they fail to comply with specific data protection regulations or if they are unable to deliver contracted services as a result of the attack.
Preventing and Mitigating DDoS Attacks
Understanding the Types of DDoS Attacks
To effectively prevent and mitigate DDoS attacks, it is essential to first understand the different types of attacks. Broadly, DDoS attacks fall into three categories: volumetric attacks, protocol attacks, and application-layer attacks. Volumetric attacks aim to overwhelm network infrastructure with a high volume of data, while protocol attacks exploit vulnerabilities in networking protocols. Application-layer attacks target specific applications and seek to exhaust server resources.
Implementing Network Security Best Practices
Adhering to network security best practices is the first line of defence against DDoS attacks. These practices include deploying firewalls, configuring routers and switches to limit traffic from suspicious sources, and using Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS) to monitor and respond to unusual activity. Regularly updating software and hardware with security patches and maintaining secure passwords also contribute to a more robust defence.
Employing DDoS Mitigation Techniques
Several techniques can be used to mitigate DDoS attacks once they have been detected. One widely used method is rate limiting, which restricts the number of requests an IP address can send within a given period. This helps to prevent the server from being overwhelmed by malicious traffic. Other mitigation techniques include IP filtering to block traffic from known malicious sources, Web Application Firewalls (WAF) to inspect and filter HTTP traffic, and using Content Delivery Networks (CDN) to distribute traffic across multiple servers, reducing the impact of an attack.